Tuesday, May 22, 2018

Executive Summary Report: UFO Encounter with the Nimitz Carrier Strike Group

Confidential Military Report on 'Tic Tac UFO (Pg 1) - Undated

     During the period of approximately 10-16 November 2004, the Nimitz Carrier Strike Group (CSG) was operating off the western coast of the United States in preparation for their
Military Report
Date Unknown
deployment to the Arabian Sea. The USS Princeton on several occasions detected multiple Anomalous Aerial Vehicles (AAVS) operating in and around the vicinity of the CSG. The AAVs would descend "very rapidly" from approximately 60,000 feet down to approximately 50 feet in a matter of seconds. They would then hover or stay stationary on the radar for a short time and depart at high velocities and turn rates. On 14 November after again detecting the AAV, the USS Princeton took the opportunity of having a flight of two F/A-18Fs returning from a training mission to further investigate the AAV. The USS Princeton took over control of the F/A-18s from the E-2C Airborne Early Warning aircraft and vectored in the F/A-18s for intercept leading to visual contact approximately one mile away from the AAV, which was reported to be "an elongated egg or a 'Tic Tac' shape with a discernible mid-line horizontal axis." It was solid white, smooth, with no edges. It was "uniformly colored with no nacelles, pylons, or wings." It was approximately 46 feet in length. The F/A-18Fs radar could not obtain a "lock" on the AAV; however it could be tracked while stationary and at slower speeds with the Forward Looking Infrared (FLIR). The AAV did take evasive actions upon intercept by the F/A-18 demonstrating an advanced acceleration (G), aerodynamic, and propulsion capability. The AAV did not take any offensive action against the CSG; however, given its ability to operate unchallenged in close vicinity to the CSG it demonstrated the potential to conduct undetected reconnaissance leaving the CSG with a limited ability to detect, track, and/or engage the AAV.

[...]

Confidential Military Report on 'Tic Tac UFO (Pg 2) - Undated
Confidential Military Report on 'Tic Tac UFO (Pg 3) - Undated
Confidential Military Report on 'Tic Tac UFO (Pg 4) - Undated

Confidential Military Report on 'Tic Tac UFO (Pg 5) - Undated
Confidential Military Report on 'Tic Tac UFO (Pg 6) - Undated
Confidential Military Report on 'Tic Tac UFO (Pg 7) - Undated

Confidential Military Report on 'Tic Tac UFO (Pg 8) - Undated
Confidential Military Report on 'Tic Tac UFO (Pg 9) - Undated
Confidential Military Report on 'Tic Tac UFO (Pg 10) - Undated

Confidential Military Report on 'Tic Tac UFO (Pg 11) - Undated
Confidential Military Report on 'Tic Tac UFO (Pg 12) - Undated
Confidential Military Report on 'Tic Tac UFO (Pg 13) - Undated

-click and or right click on image(s) to enlarge-

See Also:

Confidential Military Report on 'Tic Tac UFO Event' | VIDEO

Long-Awaited Government-Funded UFO Reports Now In The Public Domain

Documents Prove Secret UFO Study | VIDEO

AATIP or AAWSAP?

Dr. Eric W. Davis, of NASA's Breakthrough Physics Propulsion Project, Discussed UFOs During Lecture | VIDEO

UFO Research By NASA Affiliated Physicist Dr. Eric W. Davis is Confirmed By Colleague

Dr Eric Davis, Physicist, Explains Why Scientists Won't Discuss Their UFO Interests

Deciphering The Pentagon UFO Program and Release of The UFO Videos

BREAKING: Formerly Secret UFO Program NOT Called, 'Advanced Aerospace Threat Identification Program' (AATIP)?

'Getting the Mainstream Media to Approach the UFO Puzzle as Legitimate News

OREGON UFO EVENT: Air Traffic Control Audio Tapes Released via FOIA Request

What the Government Knows About UFOs | Interview with Harry Reid

3rd AATIP Video & the Pentagon UFO Study – Interview with Luis Elizondo | VIDEO

Third Government UFO Video Released | VIDEO

The Military Keeps Encountering UFOs – Why Doesn’t the Pentagon Care? | VIDEO

UFO Research Gets New Life By Way of The Pentagon's Mysterious Project

BREAKING NEWS: The Pentagon’s Mysterious UFO Program Revealed | VIDEO

Ex-Military Official Details Pentagon's Secret UFO Hunt | INTERVIEW – VIDEO

Billionaire Robert Bigelow's Decades-Long Obsession With UFOs

Navy F-18 'Gimbal UFO' Video Explained?

Post Pentagon’s UFO Research Program Revelations – Skeptics Regroup

Understanding the Science of UFOs and Space Time Metric Engineering | VIDEO

Secret UFO Program Recorded Encounters with Unknown Objects | INTERVIEW – VIDEO

UFO-Pentagon FOIA Request Delayed

BREAKING NEWS: The Pentagon’s Mysterious UFO Program Revealed | VIDEO

Ex-CIA Chief - Keep Studying UFOs

Herald Tribune Reporter, Billy Cox Queries CIA On Chase Brandon's Roswell UFO Claims

Luis Elizando Former Head of Secret Pentagon UFO Program Describes Five Categories of UFOs | INTERVIEW

While Waiting for the Next New York Times UFO Bomb to Drop

Navy Pilot, Who Chased A UFO, Says ‘We Should Take Them Seriously’

UFO Legacy: What Impact Will Revelation of Secret Government Program Have?

UFO Reports at Nuclear Missile Sites and The Pentagon UFO Program

Astrophysicist, Neil deGrasse Tyson Discusses The Pentagon UFO Program on Colbert | VIDEO

Ex-Military Official Details Pentagon's Secret UFO Hunt | INTERVIEW – VIDEO

Pentagon's Secret UFO Search, Stanton Friedman Weighs In | INTERVIEW – VIDEO

What the New York Times UFO Report Actually Reveals

'Second' Navy Pilot Comes Forward Re UFO Encounter | INTERVIEW – VIDEO

'The Pentagon’s Newly Revealed UFO Research Program' – What a Week!

On the Trail of a Secret Pentagon U.F.O. Program

UFO-Pentagon Story Reflects Fundamental Problems

Pentagon UFO Study Examined UFO Activity at Nuclear Missile Sites Says Former U.S. Senator Harry Reid

UFO Study Focused on U.S. Military Encounters

PENTAGON UFO PROGRAM: 'Recovered Material' From UFOs Discussed By Leslie Kean | INTERVIEW – VIDEO

Senator Reid Discusses Secret UFO Program | INTERVIEW – VIDEO

Navy Pilot Recounts UFO Encounter | INTERVIEW – VIDEO

Aliens, UFOs, Flying Discs and Sightings -- Oh My!

Secret Programs, U.S. Senators and Money, Who Wants to Talk UFOs Now?

Navy Pilot Talks: The UFO Jammed Their Radar — ‘It Accelerated Beyond Any Airplane We Have’

BREAKING NEWS: The Pentagon’s Mysterious UFO Program Revealed | VIDEO

Navy UFO Encounter: 'It Accelerated Like Nothing I’ve Ever Seen’ – F/A-18F Pilot | VIDEO

Secret UFO Pentagon Program Explained By Leslie Kean | INTERVIEW – VIDEO

Secret Pentagon UFO Program Spent Millions




REPORT YOUR UFO EXPERIENCE


Monday, May 21, 2018

Confidential Military Report on 'Tic Tac UFO Event' | VIDEO

Tic Tac UFO

[...]

     ... the I-Team has obtained an in-depth report prepared by and for the military, and it analyzes the so-called Tic Tac UFO using the most sophisticated sensor systems in the world.
BY George Knapp
www.lasvegasnow.com
5-18-18

Over a two-week period in late 2004, an unknown, 45-foot long Tic Tac shaped object played cat and mouse with the U.S. Navy off the coast of California. The mighty U.S.S. Nimitz aircraft carrier, and its support ships including the U.S.S. Princeton, carrying the most sophisticated sensor systems in the world, repeatedly detected recurring glimpses of the Tic Tac but were unable to lock on.

On Nov.14, F-18s were ordered into the area and saw it up close. Veteran pilot Dave Fravor, commander of the elite Black Aces unit, says the Tic Tac reacted to the presence of the F-18s then took off like a bullet fired from a gun.

"It takes off like nothing I've ever seen. One minute it's here, and off, it's gone," said retired Navy pilot David Fravor.

In the explosion of media interest that followed the Pentagon's release of the Tic Tac video along with recordings of two other encounters, Commander Fravor expressed the opinion that the technology was far more advanced than anything known on earth.

[...]


Continue Reading ►

See Also:

Long-Awaited Government-Funded UFO Reports Now In The Public Domain

Documents Prove Secret UFO Study | VIDEO

AATIP or AAWSAP?

Dr. Eric W. Davis, of NASA's Breakthrough Physics Propulsion Project, Discussed UFOs During Lecture | VIDEO

UFO Research By NASA Affiliated Physicist Dr. Eric W. Davis is Confirmed By Colleague

Dr Eric Davis, Physicist, Explains Why Scientists Won't Discuss Their UFO Interests

Deciphering The Pentagon UFO Program and Release of The UFO Videos

BREAKING: Formerly Secret UFO Program NOT Called, 'Advanced Aerospace Threat Identification Program' (AATIP)?

'Getting the Mainstream Media to Approach the UFO Puzzle as Legitimate News

OREGON UFO EVENT: Air Traffic Control Audio Tapes Released via FOIA Request

What the Government Knows About UFOs | Interview with Harry Reid

3rd AATIP Video & the Pentagon UFO Study – Interview with Luis Elizondo | VIDEO

Third Government UFO Video Released | VIDEO

The Military Keeps Encountering UFOs – Why Doesn’t the Pentagon Care? | VIDEO

UFO Research Gets New Life By Way of The Pentagon's Mysterious Project

BREAKING NEWS: The Pentagon’s Mysterious UFO Program Revealed | VIDEO

Ex-Military Official Details Pentagon's Secret UFO Hunt | INTERVIEW – VIDEO

Billionaire Robert Bigelow's Decades-Long Obsession With UFOs

Navy F-18 'Gimbal UFO' Video Explained?

Post Pentagon’s UFO Research Program Revelations – Skeptics Regroup

Understanding the Science of UFOs and Space Time Metric Engineering | VIDEO

Secret UFO Program Recorded Encounters with Unknown Objects | INTERVIEW – VIDEO

UFO-Pentagon FOIA Request Delayed

BREAKING NEWS: The Pentagon’s Mysterious UFO Program Revealed | VIDEO

Ex-CIA Chief - Keep Studying UFOs

Herald Tribune Reporter, Billy Cox Queries CIA On Chase Brandon's Roswell UFO Claims

Luis Elizando Former Head of Secret Pentagon UFO Program Describes Five Categories of UFOs | INTERVIEW

While Waiting for the Next New York Times UFO Bomb to Drop

Navy Pilot, Who Chased A UFO, Says ‘We Should Take Them Seriously’

UFO Legacy: What Impact Will Revelation of Secret Government Program Have?

UFO Reports at Nuclear Missile Sites and The Pentagon UFO Program

Astrophysicist, Neil deGrasse Tyson Discusses The Pentagon UFO Program on Colbert | VIDEO

Ex-Military Official Details Pentagon's Secret UFO Hunt | INTERVIEW – VIDEO

Pentagon's Secret UFO Search, Stanton Friedman Weighs In | INTERVIEW – VIDEO

What the New York Times UFO Report Actually Reveals

'Second' Navy Pilot Comes Forward Re UFO Encounter | INTERVIEW – VIDEO

'The Pentagon’s Newly Revealed UFO Research Program' – What a Week!

On the Trail of a Secret Pentagon U.F.O. Program

UFO-Pentagon Story Reflects Fundamental Problems

Pentagon UFO Study Examined UFO Activity at Nuclear Missile Sites Says Former U.S. Senator Harry Reid

UFO Study Focused on U.S. Military Encounters

PENTAGON UFO PROGRAM: 'Recovered Material' From UFOs Discussed By Leslie Kean | INTERVIEW – VIDEO

Senator Reid Discusses Secret UFO Program | INTERVIEW – VIDEO

Navy Pilot Recounts UFO Encounter | INTERVIEW – VIDEO

Aliens, UFOs, Flying Discs and Sightings -- Oh My!

Secret Programs, U.S. Senators and Money, Who Wants to Talk UFOs Now?

Navy Pilot Talks: The UFO Jammed Their Radar — ‘It Accelerated Beyond Any Airplane We Have’

BREAKING NEWS: The Pentagon’s Mysterious UFO Program Revealed | VIDEO

Navy UFO Encounter: 'It Accelerated Like Nothing I’ve Ever Seen’ – F/A-18F Pilot | VIDEO

Secret UFO Pentagon Program Explained By Leslie Kean | INTERVIEW – VIDEO

Secret Pentagon UFO Program Spent Millions




REPORT YOUR UFO EXPERIENCE


An Extraterrestrial Flying Disk Crashed Near Roswell in 1947: Not a UFO -PT2-

An Extraterrestrial Flying Disk Crashed Near Roswell in 1947: Not a UFO

US Government, Ufologists, Skeptics, and Others Contribute to Rare Mixture of Unreliable and Differing Information

US Government

     Project Echo was designed to be a significant step in the United States’ space program. Project Echo was intended to be used for peaceful purposes. It would in due course benefit all mankind (Swenson, Grimwood, & Alexander, 1989). Therefore, in 1947 it may have been prudent for the US Air Force to claim that a weather balloon, Project Mogul balloon, or an alien flying disk had crashed at Roswell than to tell the truth and expose Project Echo.

At first the US Air Force dispersed disinformation by stating the
Dr. Bob Wenzel Gross
Dr. Bob Wenzel Gross
The UFO Chronicles
5-18-18
Roswell wreckage was that of a weather balloon. Later, the United States Armed Forces claimed that the debris from the Roswell crash was bits and pieces of a Project Mogul experimental high-altitude surveillance balloon. Regardless, according to a US Air Force report, the Roswell wreckage was quickly taken away by the Air Force. The Roswell crash represented the beginning of a new cover-up process that was part of an airborne system for atomic-age spying. The process was developed by Columbia University, New York University, and the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (Broad, 1994).

Ufologists

A recent Amazon.com search for books written about the Roswell UFO yielded 622 results. It would be rare, if all 622 books contained the exact same information and arrived at a common conclusion about what occurred at Roswell in 1947. Contradictory information about the Roswell UFO incident is abundant.

Conflicting information inhibits creative thought and decreases the ability to innovatively solve problems. As a consequence, conflicting or differing information causes confusion and makes it difficult for even the most brilliant sages to effectively explain the UAP/UFO phenomenon. Some of those who study and contemplate UFOs—ufologists—are pseudoscientists. Traits of pseudoscientists include, but are not limited to: Not adhering to good science, stressing ambiguous scientific claims that lack evidence, using jargon, intimidation, and demanding whatever hasn’t been verified as false must be accepted as true. In this fashion, pseudoscientists avoid disseminating factual material to their audiences.

Fake stories are sometimes spread by pseudoscientists. Such stories embody a marketable mixture of fact, science fiction, fantasy, rumor, and disinformation. In the twenty-first century, the public seems to be seeking out factual answers about UFOs. Spreading weird assertions linked to the UFO marvel helps conceal the true nature of the phenomenon, thus affording government officials the necessary cover and additional time to figure out what is really going on.

My recent research shows that in addition to the government, ufologists, skeptics, and others may be adding to a massive cover up. In short, where there is no evidence, there is no science. True scientists cannot afford to automatically disregard observations, information, and experiments that refute a certain theory (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 2008).

We are currently living in a post-truth era. Alternative facts and fake news compete with peer-reviewed research (Birkinshaw, 2017). A post-truth or post-factual civilization makes decisions that are not based on what is true and proven. Such a society follows the beliefs of their members—not factual information. Today more than ever, truth must be factual, or at least have a correspondence with reality (Brown, 2016). In a post-truth world, assaults on science must be repelled.

Scientific ufologists are a necessity. UFO literature should not be aimed at the general public alone. Instead, modern ufologists’ writings must stand for accuracy, align with established standards, and withstand a stringent peer review process. Results of research must be verified. Failures can’t be ignored, excused, hidden, lied about, discounted, explained away, rationalized, forgotten, or avoided. When a preponderance of new evidence contradicts old ideas, the proof must be accepted and assimilated. The job of scientific ufologists is to convince—not convert (Coker, n.d.).

Skeptics

Soon after the 1947 Fourth of July holiday, a rancher reported to the local sheriff that he might have recovered the remains of a flying saucer. Unfortunately, no one saw the saucer while it was airborne (Rudiak, 2001a). Although UFO researchers interviewed numerous witnesses, only a few of the witnesses claimed to have seen the suspected saucer debris. Of these few people, only a handful said to have actually held the material. At least one of those handlers was positive that the remnants were not from an extraterrestrial spacecraft (Korff, 1997).

Major Jesse Marcel from the Roswell Army Air Field was assigned to look into whatever crashed on a ranch near Roswell that summer in 1947. Marcel drove to the ranch to examine and collect the wreckage. It was General Roger Ramey who ordered Marcel to bring the found wreckage to Carswell Air Force Base in Fort Worth, Texas. There, General Ramey held a press conference with Marcel present. It was Ramey who first announced that the wreckage was from a weather balloon. He lied.

Colonel Thomas J. DuBose was present when the alleged Roswell wreckage arrived at Fort Worth in 1947. DuBose was brought into General Ramey’s office where he viewed the rubble. Decades later, during an interview, DuBose was asked if the original debris in General Ramey’s office had been switched with the remnants of a weather balloon. DuBose answered that the material was never switched. Still, DuBose was unyielding that there was indeed a cover up.

DuBose did not know the real source or identity of the Roswell fragments. However, contrary to what was claimed at that time, DuBose did know that it was not an ordinary weather balloon. So, what was the object that crashed near Roswell?

In his book, The Roswell UFO Crash: What They Don't Want You to Know (1997), Kal K. Korff presented previously unpublished, formerly classified photos and drawings of various components of Project Mogul. Korff claimed that from his photos and drawings, it is clear that Project Mogul was made of the same material as the rubble DuBose saw in Ramey’s office. Thus, Korff concludes that wreckage found at Roswell was indeed from a Project Mogul constant-altitude-level balloon train equipped with intelligence gathering instruments. Korff goes on to conclude that the whole Roswell UFO hysteria was caused by people who did not know the true identity of the retrieved material they were looking at (Korff, 1997).

The crux of the whole Roswell UFO mystery has to do with a few firsthand witnesses not being able to accurately identify the exceptional metallic shards and other scrap strewn over a debris field on a patch of sandy New Mexican property. I agree with Korff that there was a cover up at Roswell. Furthermore, I maintain that the cover up did involve an extraterrestrial flying disk. But it did not involve the remnants of an alien flying saucer.

Others

Lee Speigel is a writer and reporter who is the only person in history to produce a major presentation at the United Nations on the subject of UFOs. Speigel conducted an interview with Major Jesse Marcel more than 30 years after the 1947 Roswell incident happened. During the interview, Marcel stated that when he got to General Ramey’s office in Fort Worth, the general told him to put some of the Roswell debris on the floor and let the media take a picture of it. Supposedly, the debris was made up of all sorts of materials. A lot of the fragments were made from materials Marcel had never seen before. So, Marcel put pieces of stuff out on the floor, but he did not put out anything odd or anything with detail on it. The media took pictures and one picture appeared in the newspapers.

General Ramey allegedly told the news reporters that the debris was nothing but a crashed weather balloon. Later, Ramey wanted to cover up his weather balloon statement because he didn’t know, himself, what the debris was. Essentially what they did at Fort Worth that day was to make a mock display with a battered weather balloon and let the press take pictures of it. The whole thing was a cover-up (Speigel, 2017).

In addition, Charles B. Moore was one of three surviving Project Mogul scientists identified in a 1994 Air Force report related to the Roswell event. Moore maintains that many of the materials used in New York University Project Mogul Balloon Flight 4 bear striking similarities to pieces of the 1947 Roswell crash debris. After Flight 4 was launched from Alamogordo, it was tracked as far as Arabela, New Mexico, approximately seventeen miles from the location of the debris field. No diagram is available for Flight 4 because no data were obtained for it in formal New York University reports (Thomas, 1995). The prominent meteorologist, Dr. Spilhaus, who was hired to develop high altitude balloons for Project Mogul, was associated with New York University (Broad, 1994).

Science is a body of knowledge acquired through curiosity by using a structured approach. More importantly, science is a process of becoming less wrong over time. Perhaps the most efficient and effective way to solve the UAP/UFO phenomenon may be to encourage genuine scientists to help fortify the masses of those who currently study aerial anomalies.

Today, effectively investigating UFOs requires that more genuine scientists—people who rigorously follow scientific methodology when investigating curious phenomena—join the current ranks of ufologists. These scientists must be able to utilize higher order thinking skills. Higher order thinking skills describe intellectual abilities and skills considered to be advanced cognitive processes. Higher order thinking skills encompass the abilities to analyze, evaluate, and create solutions by putting facts together in new ways (Anderson & Krathwohl, 2016).

Extraterrestrial Hypotheses Proffered

The extraterrestrial hypothesis (ETH) proposes that some UFOs are best explained as being physical spacecraft occupied by extraterrestrial lifeforms from other planets (“Extraterrestrial Hypothesis,” n.d.). The 1947 Cold War hostility between the United States and the Soviet Union produced the initial surge of UFO sightings. The first report of a flying saucer over the United States came in June 1947. Kenneth Arnold, a private pilot, sighted several disk-shaped objects near Mt. Rainier, Washington. Arnold's encounter was followed by a torrent of additional sightings from all over the United States. In 1948, Project SIGN was established to collect, collate, evaluate, and distribute—within the US government—all information relating to such sightings. UFOs might have been a real national security issue (Haines, n.d.).

On July 8, 1947 Roswell Army Air Field issued a press release stating that a flying disk had crashed on a ranch near Roswell, New Mexico during a powerful storm. Later, a press conference was held and it was restated that a weather balloon had crashed. Reporters were shown debris allegedly taken from the crash area. The debris included: foil, rubber, and wood, which seemed to confirm the object had indeed been a weather balloon. After initially reporting that the debris had come from a UFO, the Roswell Daily Record submitted a correction which included a statement that the debris was actually pieces of a weather balloon (Edwards, 2015).

During a span of more than thirty years, the Roswell crash story all but faded away. Then, in 1978, The National Enquirer reported the original Roswell Daily Record story again. However, the follow-up correction was not reported in The National Enquirer. When the new uncorrected version of the story was published, theories about an alien spacecraft cover up spread.

Around the same time, Stanton Friedman, a UFO researcher, started interviewing several people supposedly connected with the incident. Two years later in 1980, the Roswell Incident book was published. Upon the book's publication, The National Enquirer interviewed Marcel again. As a result, all sorts of hypotheses were proposed. Soon assertions surfaced that the US government was indeed covering up information about an alien spacecraft (Dunning, 2007). According to some, the government refuses to divulge the results of its UFO investigations (Haines, n.d.).

Failure of Imagination Persisted Throughout Investigation

A failure of imagination is a circumstance wherein something seemingly predictable and undesirable was not planned for. My research seems to indicate that unknown unknowns existed throughout the course of the Roswell UFO incident. Specific to the 1947 Roswell crash, UFO researchers, skeptics, and the public did not seem to know that a passive communications satellite experiment using metalized balloons—functioning as extraterrestrial relays—had the exclusive attention of the US government.

Backward Mapping

Backward design or backward mapping is a technique whereby a story is told in reverse to identify the root causes of an issue that needs to be resolved (Center for Theory of Change, 2017). Following is a backward mapped outline of factual information related to the Roswell UFO mystery:

NASA’s ECHO II Passive Communications Satellite
Figure #5. NASA’s ECHO II Passive Communications Satellite
(Courtesy of NASA).
1964: NASA’s Echo II satellite was sent into orbit around the Earth. The 135-foot rigidized balloon satellite was injected into orbit as a passive communications experiment (Figure #5).

1961: NASA’s Echo IA satellite was successfully sent into orbit around the Earth.

Prototype of an Echo Satellite
Figure #6. A scale prototype of an Echo Satellite, 12 feet in diameter (Courtesy of NASA).
1960: A Skin Stress Test of a 12-foot satellite built as a prototype of the full-scale Echo Satellite was carried out on May 1, 1960 (Figure #6).

1959: The initial test launch of a 110-foot-diameter inflatable sphere for the Echo 1 Passive Communications Satellite Project ended abruptly with the sphere exploding as it inflated. Thousands of fragments of the aluminum-covered balloon floated back into the atmosphere reflecting the light of the setting sun. It resulted in the sensation of flashing lights. Along the East Coast, reports of extraordinary sightings came pouring into the police, newspapers, television stations, and radio stations. Many people inquired if those mysterious specks of light were fireworks, a meteor shower, or UFOs (Hansen, 1995).

100 foot Echo Satellite
Figure #7. A 100 foot Echo Satellite
(Courtesy of NASA).

1958: A 100 foot Echo Satellite underwent inflation tests (Figure #7).

Engineer W.J. O'Sullivan, Jr. with a 20 Inch Sub satellite
Figure #8. Engineer W.J. O'Sullivan, Jr. with a 20 Inch Sub satellite (Courtesy of NASA).
1957: By the middle to late 1950s, all the technologies necessary for satellite communications had been invented. All that remained was to demonstrate the technologies and to compare the different innovations discussed in the technical literature (Whalen, n.d.). During that time span, small passive communications satellite prototypes were under development (Figure #8). Prototypes included various sizes and varieties of flying spheres and flying disks that had been experimented with for several years (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 1957).

1956: As with many early NASA programs, Project Echo originated as a National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) effort. NACA was formed in 1915. The original purpose of Project Echo was to measure the density of the air in the upper atmosphere, as well as to provide data related to the design of future aircraft, missiles, and spacecraft. As with many other experiments, the concept that led to Project Echo had modest beginnings. With persistence, it ended with memorable results. After years of developments, Project Echo was eventually placed on an official list of approved experiments to be launched into space.

1955: John R. Pierce of AT&T compared the estimated cost of satellite communications with the cost of the first transatlantic telephone cable. AT&T was in a better position to fund communications satellite research and development than NASA—whose entire budget was only a few hundred million dollars (Whalen, n.d.)

1952: BoPET balloons were not officially built before 1952 (Baluncore, 2016). BoPET, which evolved from polyethylene terephthalate (PET), was a prototype of Mylar. Passive communications satellites were made by constructing a balloon, or satelloon, of thick Mylar film bonded between layers of heavy aluminum foil. Mylar is an aluminum coated plastic material that was, in the long run, used for US passive communications satellites.

During the 1950s, prior to the presence of Mylar film, Project Echo experimental balloons were made from BoPET film. BoPET is a polyester film made from stretched polyethylene terephthalate (PET). PET was developed in the early 1940s, several years before the Roswell crash (“BoPET,” n.d.).

Early experimental PET, BoPET, and Mylar balloons had a revolutionary surface. Unlike the spherical surface of a latex balloon, these balloons resembled a slightly flattened sphere. This innovative shape is realized by inflating a balloon made of two circular sheets of flexible, inelastic material—now known as Mylar (“Mylar Balloon,” n.d.). Therefore, early Mylar-like balloons would have resembled flying disks. They appeared to be more disk-like than sphere-shaped. In the air, the novel large experimental passive communications satelloons may have been perceived as extraterrestrial flying disks.

1947: A flying disk (flying saucer) crashed near Roswell, New Mexico. That same year, Project Mogul was being employed as a super-secret operation that involved the use of balloon trains that were equipped with various devices for intelligence gathering purposes. Project Mogul was a classified operation begun by the US government after the end of World War II to spy on the former Soviet Union in order to determine the status of Russian attempts to build nuclear weapons. On July 8, 1947, the public information office at RAAF made the shocking announcement that they had recovered the remains of a flying disk. Only a few eyewitnesses claimed to have actually handled material from the disk. At least one of those material handlers was resolute that the stuff was not from an extraterrestrial spacecraft (Korff, 1997).

It is highly probable that the flying disk, unbeknownst to the examiners and collectors of the Roswell wreckage, was a precursor of an extraterrestrial relay device made of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) metalized with aluminum. Bits and pieces of materials from the Roswell crash were flown to General Ramey in Fort Worth, Texas. Descriptions of the wreckage shipped to Ramey’s office seemed to describe a combination of the inflatable metalized balloon from a Project Echo prototype as well as parts from a Project Mogul balloon train.

1946: An independent study of Earth satellites by Project RAND on behalf of the Army Air Forces observed that a satellite launch would have a dramatic effect on world opinion and that a satellite might have promising uses as a communications relay. In spite of a curtailment of military research and development funds under President Truman’s administration, subsequent RAND studies of geosynchronous communications satellites and the political and psychological aspects of launching spacecraft continued (Whalen, n.d.).

Also in 1946, a panel was developed to study experiments worthy of being launched by V-2 rockets. Prototype development was encouraged. In order for a passive communications satellite system to get funded, it was imperative that the project be endorsed by this esteemed panel. The Upper Atmosphere Rocket Research Panel was formed in 1946 to help select the most launch-ready, viable experiments to be carried aboard captured and renovated German V-2 rockets. The panel was originally known as the V-2 Panel. During that year, Project Echo seemed to be a potential candidate for launching aboard a V-2 rocket. Project Echo was based upon Arthur C. Clarke’s concept of an Earth orbiting satellite system. Project Echo’s satellites were intended to be inflatable spheres with a thin metal-coated plastic skin. In the long run, Project Echo satellites ended up being large aluminum-coated Mylar balloons (Hansen, 1995).

1945: The initial concept of a passive communications satellite system was proposed by science fiction writer Arthur C. Clarke. Clarke was the godfather of communications satellites and a Royal Air Force officer who hoped to revitalize the British Interplanetary Society after WWII. In an October 1945 Wireless World magazine article, Clarke wrote about the development of a geosynchronous satellite. Clarke’s article was entitled: “EXTRA-TERRESTRIAL RELAYS.” He predicted the development of a telecommunications system based on artificial satellites orbiting Earth. For all intents and purposes, these satellites were extraterrestrial flying disks. Three fixed satellites would provide complete global communications coverage (Whalen, n.d.).

Passive communications satellite makers needed Dr. Robert H. Goddard’s rockets to place their satelloons into orbit. Rocket scientist, Dr. Robert Goddard, died in August 1945. However, following his death, Dr. Goddard’s widow, Esther Goddard, completed many of his projects (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, n.d.). By July 1945, Operation Overcast and Operation Paperclip, two highly secret programs, were established to exploit V-2 rocket knowledge.

1945-1942: Dr. Robert H. Goddard was Director of Research for the Navy Department Bureau of Aeronautics. He was developing and testing jet-assisted takeoff and variable thrust liquid propellant rockets, in Roswell, New Mexico and Annapolis, Maryland (Goddard Memorial Association, n.d.).

1942: American science fiction author, George O. Smith, proposed Earth-Venus relay communications satellites (Whalen, n.d.). Also, in 1942, Dr. Robert Goddard was placed on contract at Annapolis, Maryland to develop rocket takeoff mechanisms (Roswell Museum and Art Center, n.d.).

1941: John Whinfield and James Dickson developed polyethylene terephthalate (PET). PET was patented in 1941 (Johnson, 2017). The 1947 Roswell balloon crash most probably involved a metalized PET balloon. It would have been a precursory passive communications satellite balloon experiment made from PET. In 1941, BoPET inflatables were not yet totally developed.

1940-1930: During the 1930s and 1940s, Roswell, New Mexico was the home of Dr. Robert H. Goddard. On a ranch near Roswell, Goddard and his team established a rocket research site and conducted rocket experiments (The New Mexico Museum of Space History, n.d.). Scientists at this rocket science test facility collaborated with German scientists about the V2 rocket program. During the post-WWII years, scientists from the Goddard team launched variations of the V2 rocket.

1939: For the most part, Dr. Robert Goddard’s rocket work predated the technology used for the German V-2 missiles. Toward the beginning of WWII, German engineers and scientists occasionally contacted Dr. Goddard directly in New Mexico with technical questions. Thus, before 1939, many of Goddard’s developments may have been copied by German engineers as they developed their V-2 rockets (“V-2 rocket,” n.d.).

1923: Hermann Oberth speculated about the use of geosynchronous communications satellites (Whalen, n.d.).

Conclusion

After conducting select interviews, analyzing existing literature, and evaluating data, I arrived at the following conclusion: During the early and middle 1940s, experiments essential to launching passive communications satellites were being conducted in New Mexico. In Roswell, from approximately 1942 to 1945, Dr. Robert H. Goddard and members of his rocketry team were developing and testing German V-2-like rockets. A passive communications satellite system was proposed by science fiction writer Arthur C. Clarke in 1945. In 1946, Dr. Athelstan F. Spilhaus, was developing high-altitude balloons that would stay at a constant height. Dr. Spilhaus’s experiments pioneered the use of polyethylene balloons which were an important tool related to high-altitude research. Polyethylene balloons were manufactured in Mamaroneck, New York and Minneapolis, Minnesota. Experimental balloon test flights were launched from Alamogordo, New Mexico.

The type of rockets Dr. Goddard and his team were working on would be needed to inject Clarke’s passive satellite communications system into orbit around Earth. Members of Dr. Goddard’s rocketry team were living and working near Roswell in 1947. Therefore, it is highly probable that in 1947, an experimental metalized inflated polyethylene terephthalate (PET) balloon, intended for future use as a US government Project Echo passive communications satellite, was covertly undergoing testing as part of, or in conjunction with, a Project Mogul balloon train. The Project Echo precursor had instruments added to it that included some type of temperature sensors to monitor the prototype balloon's skin temperature and pressure sensors to monitor internal pressure. The metal-coated PET balloon was struck by lightning in the vicinity of Roswell, New Mexico during a severe thunder storm. The prototype inflatable metalized balloon—designed to function as an extraterrestrial relay—exploded into shreds when hit by lightning. Hundreds of shards from the metal-covered balloon floated down upon a ranch near Roswell.

Following is a succinct summary of the Roswell UFO mystery: Intelligence is the ability to solve problems and create products that are valued in a culture. Since about 1945, the US government valued passive communications satellites made of a flexible, inelastic material that was coated with metal. Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) had been invented in 1941. In 1946, experiments were being conducted with polyethylene to develop high-altitude balloons. Some of the debris retrieved from a ranch near Roswell, New Mexico had an aluminum-like dull finish on one side, but appeared shiny on the other. The fragments were thin, lightweight, and would flex when struck. That debris field near Roswell was hard proof that scientists had invented a way to coat polyethylene with metal by 1947. Thus, technically, an extraterrestrial flying disk did crash close to Roswell, New Mexico during the summer of 1947. The simplest explanation is the best one.

Reference List

Anderson, L. W. & Krathwohl, D. R. (2016). Bloom’s Taxonomy Revised: Understanding the New Version of Bloom’s Taxonomy. In The Second Principle. Retrieved April 30, 2018, from https://thesecondprinciple.com/teaching-essentials/beyond-bloom-cognitive-taxonomy-revised/

Baluncore. (2016, July 17). Re: Is "Roswell metal" at all a possible material? [Thread comment]. Retrieved April 22, 2018, from https://www.physicsforums.com/threads/is-roswell-metal-at-all-a-possible-material.799097/

Birkinshaw, J. (2017). The Post-Truth World - Why Have We Had Enough Of Experts? In Forbes.com. Retrieved May 2, 2018, from https://www.forbes.com/sites/lbsbusinessstrategyreview/2017/05/22/the-post-truth-world-why-have-we-had-enough-of-experts/#5e7544ef54e6

BoPET. (n.d.). In Wikipedia. Retrieved April 22, 2018, from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/BoPET#cite_note-2

Broad, W. J. (1994). Wreckage in the Desert Was Odd but Not Alien. New York Times. New York. Retrieved April 8, 2018 from https://www.nytimes.com/1994/09/18/us/wreckage-in-the-desert-was-odd-but-not-alien.html

Brown, T. (2016). Evidence, expertise, and facts in a “post-truth” society. In BMJ. Retrieved May 2, 2018, from https://www.bmj.com/content/355/bmj.i6467/rr-10

Center for Theory of Change. (2017). Backwards Mapping and Connecting Outcomes. Retrieved April 22, 2018, from http://www.theoryofchange.org/what-is-theory-of-change/how-does-theory-of-change-work/example/backwards-mapping/

Clarke, A. C. (1945). EXTRA-TERRESTRIAL RELAYS. In Wireless World. Retrieved May 5, 2018, from http://www.tnmoc.org/sites/default/files/Extra-Terrestrial%20Relays2.pdf

Coker, R. (n.d.). Distinguishing Science and Pseudoscience. In Quackwatch. Retrieved April 22, 2018, from https://www.quackwatch.org/01QuackeryRelatedTopics/pseudo.html

Dunning, B. (2007). Aliens in Roswell: Skeptoid Podcast. In Skeptoid Media. Retrieved April 22, 2018, from http://skeptoid.com/episodes/4079

Edwards, B. (2015). The Roswell incident: how 'UFO sighting' led to 68 years of conspiracy theories. In The Week. Retrieved April 21, 2018 from http://www.theweek.co.uk/us/59331/roswell-ufo-crash-what-really-happened-67-years-ago

Extraterrestrial Hypothesis. (n.d.). In Wikipedia. Retrieved April 22, 2018, from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Extraterrestrial_hypothesis

Federal Bureau of Investigation. (n.d.). Project Blue Book (UFO). In FBI Records: The Vault.
Retrieved April 23, 2018, from https://vault.fbi.gov/Project%20Blue%20Book%20%28UFO%29%20

Friedrich, T.L. & Mumford, M.D. (2009). The Effects of Conflicting Information on Creative Thought: A Source of Performance Improvements or Decrements? Creativity Research Journal, 21:2-3, 265-281.

Gangi, S. (2011). Differentiating Instruction using Multiple Intelligences in the Elementary School Classroom: A Literature Review. Unpublished master’s thesis, University of Wisconsin-Stout, Menomonie, Wisconsin.

Gardner, H. (1999). Intelligence Reframed: Multiple Intelligences for the 21st Century. New York, New York: Basic Books.

Goddard Memorial Association. (n.d.). Highlights From the Life of Robert H. Goddard. Retrieved May 4, 2018, from http://www.goddardmemorial.org/Goddard/timeline.html

Gross, B.W. (2017). Closing the Kecksburg UFO Case Opened Another Mystery – Pt 1. In The UFO Chronicles.com. Retrieved April 23, 2018, from https://www.theufochronicles.com/2017/09/closing-kecksburg-ufo-case-pt1.html

Haines, G.K. (n.d.). CIA's Role in the Study of UFOs, 1947-90. Retrieved April 22, 2018, from https://www.cia.gov/library/center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/csi-publications/csi-studies/studies/97unclass/ufo.html

Hansen, J.R. (1995). SPACEFLIGHT REVOLUTION: NASA Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo. In The Odyssey of Project Echo. Washington, D.C. National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved April 22, 2018, from https://history.nasa.gov/SP-4308/ch6.htm

Jet Propulsion Laboratory National Aeronautics Space Administration. (n.d.). Mission and Spacecraft Library. Retrieved April 21, 2018, from https://web.archive.org/web/20100527211747/http://samadhi.jpl.nasa.gov/msl/QuickLooks/echoQL.html

Johnson, T. (2017). Polyethylene Terephthalate: The Plastic Commonly Known as PET. In ThoughtCo. Retrieved April 22, 2018, from https://www.thoughtco.com/what-is-polyethylene-terephthalate-820354

Korff, K. K. (1997). What Really Happened at Roswell. In Skeptical Inquirer Volume 21.4. Retrieved April 21, 2018, from https://www.csicop.org/si/show/what_really_happened_at_roswell

Mutual UFO Network. (n.d.-a). Kecksburg Crash – 1965. Retrieved August 22, 2017, from http://www.mufon.com/kecksburg-crash---1965.html

Mutual UFO Network. (n.d.-b). ROSWELL UFO RETRIEVAL – 1947. Retrieved April 30, 2018, from http://www.mufon.com/roswell-ufo-retrieval---1947.html

Mylar Balloon (Geometry). (n.d.). In Wikipedia. Retrieved April 22. 2018, from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mylar_balloon_(geometry)

National Aeronautics and Space Administration. (n.d.). Dr. Robert H. Goddard, American Rocketry Pioneer. Retrieved April 27, 2018, from https://www.nasa.gov/centers/goddard/about/history/dr_goddard.html

National Aeronautics and Space Administration. (1957). Engineer W.J. O'Sullivan, Jr. with 20 Inch Sub satellite [Image]. Retrieved April 22, 2018, from https://images.nasa.gov/details-LRC-1957-B701_P-00528.html

National Aeronautics and Space Administration. (2011). Echo II, a Balloon Satellite. Retrieved April 23, 2018. From https://www.nasa.gov/multimedia/imagegallery/image_feature_2124.html

National Reconnaissance Office. (2007). The Nation’s Eyes and Ears in Space [NRO_Fact_SheetPubAckLaunch.pdf]. Retrieved from http://www.nro.gov/about/nro/NRO_Fact_Sheet.pdf

New Mexico. (n.d.). In Wikipedia. Retrieved April 21, 2018, from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_Mexico

Olmsted, K.S. (2009). Real Enemies: Conspiracy Theories and American Democracy, World War I to 9/11. Oxford University Press.

Project Echo. (n.d.). In Wikipedia. Retrieved April 21, 2018, from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Project_Echo

Project Mogul. (n.d.). In Wikipedia. Retrieved April 21, 2018, from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Project_Mogul

Roswell Museum and Art Center. (n.d.). Robert Hutchings Goddard: Dreamer, Tinkerer, Pioneer. Retrieved May 4, 2018, from https://roswell-nm.gov/348/Robert-H-Goddard-Dreamer-Tinkerer-Pionee

Roswell UFO Incident. (n.d.). In Wikipedia. Retrieved April 30, 2018, from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roswell_UFO_incident

Rudiak, D. (2001a). ABC News Radio, July 8, 1947, 10:00 p.m., Headline Edition with Taylor Grant in New York. In Roswell Proof. Retrieved April 21, 2018, from http://roswellproof.homestead.com/abc_news_july8.html

Rudiak, D. (2001b). 2. Tough, Flexible, Foil-like Material, with Memory. In Roswell Proof. Retrieved April 21, 2018, from (http://roswellproof.homestead.com/debris2_memory_foil.html).

Speigel, L. (2017). Roswell’s Unanswered UFO Questions. In Huffington Post.com. Retrieved May 5, 2018, from https://www.huffingtonpost.com/2015/07/02/roswell-ufo-crash-unanswered_n_7716828.html

Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. (2008). Science and Pseudo-Science. Retrieved April 22, 2018, from https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/pseudo-science/

Swenson, L.S. Jr., Grimwood, J.M., & Alexander, C.C. (1989). Election Year Appraisals. In This New Ocean: A History of Project Mercury. Retrieved April 21, 2018, from https://www.hq.nasa.gov/office/pao/History/SP-4201/toc.htm

The New Mexico Museum of Space History. (n.d.). About the Museum. Retrieved April 21, 2018, from http://www.nmspacemuseum.org/content.php?id=16

Thomas, D. (1995). The Roswell Incident and Project Mogul. In SKEPTICAL INQUIRER Volume 19.4, July / August 1995. Retrieved May 7, 2018, from https://www.csicop.org/si/show/roswell_incident_and_project_mogul

V-2 rocket. (n.d.). In Wikipedia. Retrieved April 27, 2018, from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/V-2_rocket

Visit Albuquerque. (n.d.). Western Legacy. Retrieved April 21, 2018, from https://www.visitalbuquerque.org/about-abq/culture-heritage/western-legacy/

Whalen, D. J. (n.d.). Chapter 9: Billion Dollar Technology: A Short Historical Overview of the Origins of Communications Satellite Technology, 1945-1965. Retrieved April 21, 2018, from https://history.nasa.gov/SP-4217/ch9.htm

An Extraterrestrial Flying Disk Crashed Near Roswell in 1947: Not a UFO

An Extraterrestrial Flying Disk Crashed Near Roswell in 1947: Not a UFO

Preface

     By revisiting and reflecting upon renowned enigmas from the past, curious human beings can effectively re-examine and re-evaluate unexplained phenomena. Exploratory expeditions into Unidentified Flying Object (UFO) history have the potential to reveal clues unnoticed decades earlier. Thus, we learn from history.

In 2018, as a seasoned UFO researcher, I thought it was time to engage my readers more than ever before. So, what I am about to share is strictly from my perspective. But, it’s based on
Dr. Bob Wenzel Gross
Dr. Bob Wenzel Gross
The UFO Chronicles
5-18-18
facts from extensive research. The ensuing paper represents decades of scientifically analyzing a well-documented UFO mystery from a bygone era.

After years of reviewing relevant literature and reflecting upon my interview notes, I began to identify bits of data that in time fell into bigger distinguishable chunks of information. It wasn’t long before I genuinely understood the mystery surrounding the 1947 Roswell UFO case. For me, the Roswell UFO phenomenon embodied, but was not limited to, the following components:
• Debris made of unfamiliar space age metallic materials was observed and recovered near the crash site

• The US government was involved

• At least two contemporary covert projects that collected secret data were entangled

• At least one project had a multiple year research and development cycle

• The government, ufologists, skeptics, and others contributed to disseminating a rare combination of unreliable and conflicting information

• Extraterrestrial hypotheses were proffered and publicized

• A failure of imagination seemed to permeate initial and subsequent investigations
Introduction

Extraterrestrial intelligence exists somewhere in the Universe. On that account, I scientifically study the UFO phenomenon with considerable rigor. I will accept, however, proof of extraterrestrial intelligence on Earth—but only on a case by case basis. For me, absence of evidence is strong evidence of absence.

All UFO cases must withstand scientific scrutiny. Scientists learn from history. Thus, science becomes less wrong over time. By studying times gone by, devout scientific investigators can examine and evaluate credible examples of the UFO phenomenon from a unique vantage point. That vantage point—the past—is an excellent place for spotting patterns. Differentiating and contemplating distinct and elusive patterns makes it possible for human beings to learn from history and grow from past mistakes.

Existential intelligence is a concept that Dr. Howard Gardner explored in the late 1990s. The term intelligence itself deals with how people effectively and efficiently solve problems and create products valued in a given culture (Gardner, 1999). Existential intelligence is the capacity to readily envision the big picture. People with a strong existential intelligence have the distinct ability to think about why things exist. We all possess existential intelligence to some degree.

People with a dominant existential intelligence may wonder if intelligent life exists in the Universe. Individuals with a well-developed existential intelligence also need the freedom to ponder, conceptualize, and hypothesize. Such distinctive characters take pleasure in analyzing and thinking about questions that don’t have clear answers.

Existential intelligence can be grown. Those humans who have nurtured their existential intelligence wonder about how variables interact. They also willingly evaluate how concepts relate to one another (Gangi, 2011). People with a robust existential intelligence naturally detect patterns that connect phenomena.

Partly because of my own enduring existential intelligence, when I view images of unidentifiable aerial phenomenon, I don’t immediately think aliens from another planet are visiting Earth. Similarly, when I actually encounter an object in the air that seems to defy contemporary science, it doesn’t automatically mean to me that the object originated from beyond this world.

The Department of Defense (DOD) is an executive branch department of the federal government of the United States. Coincidentally, the DOD was created in 1947. It was charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government concerned with national security. Project Blue Book was a US government project that investigated UFO reports between 1947 and 1969. The project was initiated to determine if anomalous aerial vehicles threatened national security (Federal Bureau of Investigation, n.d.). Under Blue Book, the US Air Force looked at thousands of reported UFO sightings. Many of those sightings remain unidentified.

Studying history is germane to understanding UFOs. Looking at aerial anomalies from a historical perspective makes it possible to learn from the endeavors of early UFO researchers. Today, UFO enthusiasts cannot afford to repeat the processing errors of the past. Ufology must improve. Therefore, to increase the depth and breadth of knowledge related to the UFO phenomenon, I revisited a well-documented UFO incident from 1947: The Roswell, New Mexico UFO crash.

The Roswell Story Overview

New Mexico is the fifth largest state in the United States with a total area of approximately 121,700 square miles. Much of New Mexico is sandy, undeveloped, and desolate. The state’s wide open spaces and clear blue skies make it an ideal location for working on rockets, launching experimental payloads, and testing atomic bombs (“New Mexico,” n.d.).

In addition to its distinctive landscape, New Mexico has a unique culture. More specifically, New Mexico has a cowboy culture that blends hard work, innovation, and individualism with a love for adventure. Some inhabitants call it the Land of Enchantment (Visit Albuquerque, n.d.).

I was first introduced to New Mexico in 2001. Up to that time, my professional career had been rewarding. It encompassed a wide continuum of jobs mostly in the realm of education. But, the tragedy of September 11, 2001, forced me to rethink my calling. I placed my life’s work on hold and joined AmeriCorps. While in AmeriCorps—the Domestic Peace Corps—I served as a volunteer in New Mexico. While living and working there, I traveled rather extensively and learned as much as I could about that entrancing southwestern state and its inhabitants.

I was an AmeriCorps volunteer participating in an arts education project in Las Cruces, New Mexico. The project used the performing, literary, and visual arts to improve the quality of education in failing schools near Mexico. This not-for-profit endeavor incorporated safe after school programs, interdisciplinary arts education programs, and community projects. I helped teams of visual and performing artists coach teachers about integrating the arts into their core curriculums.

Then, in 2004, I was hired as the chief licensed administrator for a new charter school in Las Cruces. My responsibilities included developing and implementing: policies, regulations, procedures, and curriculums. I made sure all enrolled students received instruction that exceeded the state standards. I also managed course development, program evaluations, extracurricular activities, personnel issues, finances, facilities, scheduling, and discipline procedures. Moreover, I coordinated school assessments, delivered staff development workshops, and wrote grants. In my spare time, I produced and participated in informational television programs about the school.

Later, from 2005 to 2007, I lived and worked on the Navajo Reservation near Crownpoint, New Mexico. There, I was employed by the U.S. Department of the Interior to serve as a turnaround specialist, educational consultant, headmaster, and executive director. I oversaw all educational aspects of a grant school. The school was located on the Eastern Navajo Agency.

The Navajo’s tasked me with establishing an education system built on the Navajo language and culture. To accomplish my task, I quickly learned how to interpret and implement federal, state, local, and tribal laws. In addition, I was required to lobby for the Navajo Nation at state and national meetings. Conjointly, I spoke on behalf of the Navajo Tribe at Tribal Budget Advisory Committee meetings in Washington, DC.

Following that job, I worked as a turnaround administrator for a small school district located between Albuquerque and Las Cruces, New Mexico. From 2007 to 2010, I lived and worked in the small resort town of Truth or Consequences. In that place, I functioned as part of an administrative team to improve the local schools’ education programs. Besides that, I acted as a district hearing officer and served on a New Mexico gang task force that trained in Roswell, New Mexico.

Roswell was famous for an alleged UFO incident. The event took place in that southwestern city during 1947. Explanations of what took place back then were based on official and unofficial communications.

On or about July 8, 1947 a press release was issued stating personnel from Roswell Army Air Field (RAAF) had retrieved the remnants of a crashed flying disk (Mutual UFO Network [MUFON], n.d.-b). Although, nobody actually saw the disk in the air, the press release conveyed that a flying disk had crashed on a ranch near Roswell, New Mexico (Rudiak, 2001a). Allegedly, the flying disk was damaged during a powerful storm. As might have been predicted, a military whitewash followed (Olmsted, 2009).

The crash debris was salvaged from the ranch and flown to General Roger Ramey in Fort Worth, Texas for inspection. After the remains were examined, General Ramey stated that RAAF personnel had actually retrieved a wrecked weather balloon. A press conference was ultimately held so the debris could be displayed and then photographed by the media. For all intents and purposes, the wreckage appeared to have been bits and pieces of a weather balloon (MUFON, n.d.-b).

In due course, the incident faded from public attention. Then, in 1978, a ufologist and nuclear physicist, Stanton T. Friedman, interviewed Major Jesse Marcel who was involved with the original 1947 debris retrieval. Marcel expressed his belief that the military had covered up salvaging an alien spacecraft. Marcel’s story quickly spread through UFO circles. It was featured in UFO documentaries and publications. In 1980, the National Enquirer ran an interview with Marcel that brought national and worldwide attention to the Roswell incident.

As a result, UFO proponents pushed that an alien craft was found, its occupants captured, and the military covered it up. Conspiracy theories clearly fomented the original event. The Roswell incident grew into a popular UFO mystery.

In 1995, the General Accounting Office released the results of a report that concluded the debris retrieved from a Roswell ranch in 1947 was from Project Mogul (MUFON, n.d.-b). Project Mogul was a US Military Air Force surveillance balloon experiment classified TOP SECRET in 1946. Mogul employed experimental high-altitude surveillance balloons. Apparently, when a Mogul balloon smashed into the sands of a New Mexican ranch, the military decided to hide Project Mogul’s real identity. Unlike a typical weather balloon, Project Mogul’s gear was enormous and contained unusual types of materials. According to research conducted by the New York Times, Project Mogul employed big balloons, reflectors, lightweight sticks, and sharp pieces of metal foil (Broad, 1994). Today, Roswell continues to be the most publicized of all alleged UFO incidents (MUFON, n.d.-b). Since the late 1970s, the Roswell occurrence has also been the subject of much controversy.

Prediction

After an initial review of the existing literature, I predicted that an experimental prototype of a US government passive communications satellite—not a Project Mogul balloon or weather balloon—crashed on a ranch near Roswell, New Mexico in 1947. Two years prior to that crash, the concept of a passive communications satellite system was proposed by science fiction writer Arthur C. Clarke. Moreover, one year before the Roswell crash, a study about satellites found that launching an orbiting probe of sorts would have a vivid effect on world opinion. Furthermore, a satellite is a great communications relay.

Unfamiliar Space Age Metallic Debris Retrieved Near Crash

Eyewitnesses maintained that some fragments retrieved near Roswell, New Mexico in 1947 had an aluminum-like dull finish on one side, but appeared shiny on the other. The stuff was thin, lightweight, and would flex—not dent—when struck. The peculiar metal seemed to be cut and perforation proof. Most pieces were jagged and seemed as if they had been exploded. Although the shards had burn marks on them, they were not scratched. These metallic bits could be folded, but they would quickly go back to their original shapes (Rudiak, 2001b). The debris was scientifically analyzed, but none of it was determined extraterrestrial in origin (Korff, 1997).

US Government Involvement

The state of New Mexico played a significant part in developing the US government’s early space program. For instance, New Mexico is home to the White Sands Missile Range that established its headquarters near Las Cruces. Also, the Trinity Site in Alamogordo is the location of the world’s first atomic bomb that was detonated in 1945. Moreover, New Mexico houses an Air and Space Park. On display in this park is a spacecraft that is 86 feet tall—allegedly the largest rocket ever launched from New Mexico. The park also features an outdoor track once used to test the human body’s tolerances. For more than eighty years, New Mexico has been on the cutting edge regarding new developments in aerospace and rocketry. Much of the early work that paved the way for the US government to become a world leader in space happened in the state of New Mexico (The New Mexico Museum of Space History, n.d.).

The Roswell crash was perhaps the greatest of all US government cover-ups. The story of the US government’s Project Mogul can be pieced together from US Air Force reports and other documents. The Mogul spying system was the brainchild of Dr. Maurice Ewing. Early in his career, Dr. Ewing worked at conducting naval research on the transmission of sound.

Mogul balloon test flights were launched from Alamogordo, New Mexico—a short distance from Roswell. The United States Armed Forces maintained that the debris from the 1947 Roswell crash was the remnants of an experimental high-altitude surveillance balloon belonging to Project Mogul. Back then, the US government was required to protect TOP SECRET information (Broad, 1994).

Two Contemporary Covert Projects Entangled

Project Mogul

In 1944, Dr. Maurice Ewing theorized that the Earth's atmosphere might contain a sound channel. Hence, he proposed a surveillance system to the US Air Force that could monitor distant nuclear blasts. In 1946, Project Mogul was given TOP SECRET classification. The project’s primary purpose was the long distance detection of sound waves generated by atomic bomb tests.

Project Mogul essentially involved flying microphones on high-altitude balloons. The Mogul venture was carried out from 1947 until early 1949. The project’s mission was moderately successful, but it was very expensive. It was superseded by a network of seismic detectors and air sampling devices for fallout, which were cheaper, more reliable, and easier to deploy and operate. The early Mogul balloons consisted of large clusters of rubber meteorological balloons; however, these were quickly replaced by enormous balloons made of polyethylene plastic. The replacement balloons were more durable, leaked less helium, and were better at holding a constant altitude than the early rubber balloons (“Project Mogul,” n.d.).

Since Mogul’s, goal was to search the atmosphere for reverberations from nuclear tests, the project sought out prominent scientists and academic institutions to develop all kinds of balloons and detecting equipment. Dr. Ewing and Columbia University were involved in developing sensors. A prominent meteorologist at New York University, Dr. Athelstan F. Spilhaus, was hired to develop high altitude balloons that would stay at a constant height.

At first, the Air Force’s balloon-related experiments used neoprene meteorological balloons. Later, the use of polyethylene balloons was pioneered. Project Mogul used polyethylene balloons manufactured in New York and in Minneapolis. Many test flights of balloons were launched from Alamogordo, New Mexico.

Allegedly, the 1947 Roswell crash debris no longer exists. Thus, it cannot be proven that the debris recovered from the Roswell ranch was related to Project Mogul. Photographs taken in 1947 and published seem to show damaged fragments of collapsed balloons and radar reflectors. Supposedly, the Air Force’s Roswell-related reports excluded all evidence that conflicted with its Project Mogul conclusion. Those reports ignored statements from witnesses who described unusually strong, light weight, material that looked like a kind of metal foil (Broad, 1994).

Passive Communications Satellites

In 1942, George O. Smith proposed the concept of Earth-Venus relay communications satellites (Whalen, n.d.). A passive communications satellite system was detailed by science fiction writer Arthur C. Clarke in 1945. Passive communications satellites were intended to be inflatable spheres with a thin metal-coated plastic skin.

Project Echo eventually became the USA’s first official passive communications satellite experiment. Each Echo spacecraft was a metalized balloon satellite functioning as a passive reflector for microwave signals. Communication signals were bounced off them from one point on Earth to another. In addition, NASA's new inflatable satellite program could gather information about the upper atmosphere and radiation. Moreover, these dirigible-like experiments could collect valuable information about the military buildup on Earth (Hansen, 1995).

From 1959 to 1964, three refined Project Echo passive communications satellites were launched. Regrettably, the initial test of a full-sized sphere ended abruptly with the sphere exploding as it inflated (“Project Echo,” n.d.). The 1959 test of an Echo 1 Passive Communications Satellite ended abruptly when the inflating sphere exploded—ripping the satelloon to shreds. Thousands of fragments of aluminum-covered balloon floated back to Earth. The shards reflected the light of the setting sun and created a sensation of flashing lights. However, in 1961, NASA’s Echo IA satellite was successfully sent into orbit around the Earth. During 1964, NASA was able to send Echo II, a rigidized balloon passive communications satellite experiment, into orbit (Hansen, 1995).

Initially, each Echo spacecraft was designed to be a 30.5 meter diameter balloon made of 0.0127 millimeter thick Mylar polyester film. A set of beacon transmitters would be carried for telemetry. The transmitters were powered by nickel-cadmium batteries that were charged by solar cells mounted on the balloon. Eventually, a 41.1 meter diameter Mylar balloon was used with an improved inflation system to increase the balloon's smoothness and sphericity.

Instrumentation was added which included temperature sensors to monitor the balloon's skin temperature and pressure sensors to monitor the balloon's internal pressure. A beacon system, consisting of two transmitter assemblies, provided tracking and telemetry signals. The beacon system used solar cell panels for power (Jet Propulsion Laboratory National Aeronautics Space Administration, n.d.).

Research and Development Cycle

During the 1930’s and 1940s, Roswell was the home of Dr. Robert Goddard. On a ranch near Roswell, New Mexico, Dr. Goddard and his team established a rocket research site and conducted rocket experiments (The New Mexico Museum of Space History, n.d.). For the most part, Dr. Robert Goddard’s rocket work predated the technology used for the German V-2 missiles.

John Whinfield and James Dickson developed and patented polyethylene terephthalate (PET) in 1941 (Johnson, 2017). In 1946, a panel was convened to study experiments in progress that had the potential of sooner or later being launched by V-2 rockets. Also in 1946, an independent study of Earth satellites by Project RAND observed that a satellite launch would have a dramatic effect on world opinion. The study also found satellites might have a promising future if used as communications relays (Whalen, n.d.).

The research and development cycle for the passive communications satellite project encompassed untried experiments in at least four major areas: 1. The use of polyethylene balloons that stay at a constant height area—polyethylene lessens the up-at-day, down-at-night cycle for high altitude balloons (Broad, 1994). 2. The satelloon or metalized balloon development area—including tensile stress testing. 3. The rocket development area—involving the process of injecting satelloons into orbit around the Earth. 4. The inflation area—flawlessly inflating the folded satelloons that are jettisoned from their small payload canisters (NASA, 2011).

The Echo Passive Communications Satellite Project had a relatively long research and development cycle. Essentially, the project’s complete cycle—from inception to first successful launch—lasted from 1945 to 1961. It was approximately sixteen (16) years from the onset of the Passive Communications Satellite Project’s design, development, and test period to its decline and take over by the Echo II Project and other satellite programs.





LIVE SIGHTING REPORTS BY MUFON