By Dennis BalthaserOver the years many theories have been proposed about how the three Pyramids of Giza were constructed, however I know of no records having ever been found explaining how they were in fact built, or by whom. Some of the theories proposed have merit; while others are questionable, and I’ll try to explain a few that I’m familiar with in this article.
Not only is the construction of the pyramids a mystery, but their age is as well. Most Egyptologists refer to a period of time about 2600 BC during the reign of the 4th Dynasty Pharaoh Khufu. The problem with that however is the fact that nothing has ever been discovered inside the great pyramid, other than an empty lidless box (coffer) to indicate a Pharaoh was ever buried there, as no artifacts for the afterlife were present when the Arabs first entered the pyramid about 820AD. The only reference to Khufu found was a 3”statue, located miles from the pyramids which is today on display in the Cairo museum. (Not much of a legacy for a Pharaoh supposedly buried in a pyramid built for him.)
Researcher Ken Kline has stated that he found evidence of salt water deposits on the inside of the great pyramid, which would predate the age mentioned above, since that area of the world has not had significant rainfall for 5-10,000 years. Kline goes as far as stating perhaps the salt-water deposits he mentions are indicative of the great flood mentioned in the Bible, which would predate the Egyptian civilization. Many structures in Egypt including the Sphinx, also contain seashells and marine fossils fully intact and preserved in the stones used to construct those edifices.
In recent years several pyramid shaped structures have been discovered in Bosnia, in a town near Sarajevo and Herzegovina, by Bosnian-American archaeologist Semir (Sam) Osmanagich, which are believed to be even older and larger than the those on the Giza Plateau, containing a paved entrance and underground tunnel system, when the woodland covering them is removed. As with the many ancient structures still covered by sand in Egypt, much more research will be required to validate this recent discovery. For more information on the Bosnian pyramids go to http://www.bosnianpyramids.org
A Franco-American study first made in the 1970’s by French chemist Joseph Davidovits, claimed the pyramids of Giza were built by pouring a form of concrete into blocks on the site rather than cutting and transporting large stones from a quarry, at least on the upper portion of the pyramids, since it is apparent that two types of stones were used, (one from the quarries and one man-made.) According to an article published in the Journal of American Ceramic Society, “the chemistry is well and truly different.” The concrete theorists also point out differences in the density of the pyramid stones, which have a higher mass near the bottom and bubbles near the top, like old-style concrete blocks. The 2.5 million blocks used to build the great pyramid were originally covered with polished limestone casing stones. When the great pyramid is viewed from above, one clearly sees that the horizontal surfaces of the uppermost blocks are flat, unlike the rougher appearing surfaces of blocks toward the bottom of the pyramid. The work force required for casting the blocks at the top of the structure would have been greatly reduced also, versus pulling gigantic stone blocks up ramps to place them in their proper position.
The use of ramps with 20-30,000 workers over a 25-30 year period seems to be the most popular theory presented thus far for explaining how the 3 pyramids of Giza were constructed. I have some problems with that theory which I’ll explain.
Considering the fact that the great pyramid, (Khufu’s), contains 2 ½ million stones weighing between 2 and 70 tons each, and that each stone had to be quarried and shaped away from the site, transported by barge up the Nile River and then set in place, (some at a height of over 400 feet), doesn’t fit the time schedule referred to. To accomplish this, a stone would have had to be set in place every 90 seconds, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, for 30 years. Prior to the Aswan Dam being completed in 1970 on the Nile, the river flooded annually, which seems to me would have created problems for transporting the massive stones from the quarry to the site, and not allowed for the continuous placement of each stone.
Two methods of dragging these stones on wooden sleds to their final location has also been proposed. Using one continuous ramp would have required an extremely long ramp to reach to the upper portions of the pyramid, requiring the ramp to be lengthened every few increases in elevation of the pyramid, and there are over 200 steps or tiers to the summit. Another ramp proposal utilized a spiral ramp on all 4 sides of the pyramid, going upward as each lift or step was completed. The casing stones, which eventually covered the pyramids, were probably started at the top working downward. Today the only remaining casing stones on the pyramids of Giza are at the top of the Khafre pyramid, (Khufu’s son), adjacent to, and slightly shorter than the great pyramid. The Arabs removed most of the casing stones during the 14th century to build their own temples and Mosques.
Another theory I have heard mentioned, but have found little documentation on is the possibility of levitation to lift the gigantic stones into place.
Researcher Stephen Mehler, in his book “The Land Of Osiris” refers to a civilization in North Africa some 10,000 years ago known as “Khemitians”. According to Mehler this civilization, supposedly had contact with star people. This would of course predate the Egyptian civilization, and as many believe, the pyramids of Giza and the Sphinx are much older than the Egyptian civilization. As an example, it’s a well-accepted fact that the deteriation on the Sphinx was caused by water, not by wind and sand.
Using Mehler’s information I’m not proposing that star people (aliens) built the pyramids, but perhaps furnished the technology to build them. Of the 100+ other pyramids in Egypt, none compare with the 3 of Giza, which all appear to be poor replicas built by the Egyptians, of the 3 on the Giza Plateau.
Considering the tools the Egyptian’s had available to themselves, the different theories proposed over the years for how the pyramids were constructed, and the technology required, I continue to question some of the information that has been presented about who built the 3 pyramids of Giza and the Sphinx, and how it was accomplished. Perhaps validated information will be forthcoming in the future, but for the present time some of us will continue to doubt and question what we’re being told. The physical evidence is there today for all to see. The only questions remaining are how did they get there, for what purpose were they built, and who built them?